A Clinicopathologic Study of Various Breast Lesions by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC)

Kazi Farzana Khanam, Nasima Akter, Tarana Tabashum, Abu Khalid Muhammad Maruf Raza, Asma Ul Hosna, Farzana Rahman, Afroza Begum

Abstract


Background: The expected and significant role of cytological diagnosis is to distinguish benign from malignant processes. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the breast has two main goals. One is to confirm a radiological and clinical benign lesion and avoid unnecessary surgery and the other is to confirm a malignant diagnosis and allow definite treatment planning.

Methods: In breast lesions, rapid diagnosis by aspiration cytology can be particularly useful for allaying the apprehension and anxiety of the patient whose apparent solid mass may turn to be a cyst, thus reducing the anguish and morbidity associated with unnecessary surgical procedures. If the lesions turn out to be malignant, the patient can be referred for immediate treatment on priority so that treatment is not unnecessarily delayed. Thus, aspiration cytology is used more and more in the diagnosis of benign and malignant lesions of the breast. It is a cost-effective and safe method that can differentiate benign and malignant lesions accurately. In advanced carcinoma or unwilling patients for surgery, it can form the basis of management. The objective of this study was to analyze cases of FNAC of breast lesions.

Results: This study was a cross-sectional study including all the patients with breast lump who attended Dhaka Community Medical college Hospital for FNAC. A total 50 cases of all ages and both sexes were included in this study. Smears made from aspirated material were collected and examined. Most of the aspirates were from females. There were more benign lesions (43 cases) as compared to malignant cases (seven cases). Fibroadenomas were the most benign lesion of breast. The age of malignant cases ranged from 21 to 60 years with a majority of cases in the age group of 41 - 50 years (four cases, 57.1%).

Conclusion: FNAC is less time-consuming, safe, useful and highly accurate technique for breast masses and can segregate benign and malignant lesions with accuracy. Triple assessment by clinical, radiological and pathological examination is a standard approach in the evaluation of breast lumps. The clinical and radiological presentations of both benign and malignant lesions can be similar - as a hypoechoic focal mass, occasionally inflammatory lesions may mimic mass-like lesions or appears as non-homogenous regions on radiographs. Here, FNAC can play a major decisive diagnostic role and minimizing the requirement of biopsy.




J Curr Surg. 2018;8(3-4):27-31
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/jcs366w


Keywords


Fine needle aspiration cytology; Breast lump; Benign breast lump; Malignant

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