Journal of Current Surgery, ISSN 1927-1298 print, 1927-1301 online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, J Curr Surg and Elmer Press Inc
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Original Article

Volume 4, Number 3, September 2014, pages 76-85

Gender Dimorphism of Crania in Young Jordanian Adults: Discriminant Function Analysis Approach for Gender Prediction


Figure 1.
Figure 1. A cephalometric radiograph illustrating the landmarks defined in Table 1.
Figure 2.
Figure 2. A cephalometric radiograph illustrating the linear measurements defined in Table 2.*GSg-N.
Figure 3.
Figure 3. A cephalometric radiograph illustrating the angular measurements defined in Table 2.
Figure 4.
Figure 4. The contribution fraction of the discriminant parameters to gender determination.


Table 1. The Cephalometric Landmarks Employed in the Present Investigation
MetopionMPoint where the line that connects the highest points of the frontal eminences crosses the sagittal plane.
SupraglabellareSgMost posterior midline point in the supraglabellar fossa, the concavity between glabella and metopion most posterior midline point in the supraglabellar fossa.
GlabellaGMost anterior point in the midsagittal plane between the superciliary arches.
NasionNMost anterior point on the fronto-nasal suture in the midsagittal plane.
V1Upper parameter of the frontal sinus cavity.
V2Lower parameter of the frontal sinus cavity.
H1Anterior parameter of the frontal sinus cavity on bregma to nasion line, the line from the inner location of bregma to nasion.
H2Posterior parameter of the frontal sinus cavity on bregma to nasion line.
SellaSMidpoint of sella turcica, hypophyseal fossa.
OrbitaleOrLowest point on the lower margin of the bony orbit.
PorionPoTop of the external auditory meatus.
BasionBaMost inferior posterior point in the sagittal plane on the anterior rim of the foramen magnum.
MastoidaleMaLowest point of the mastoid process.
B1Anterior parameter of the mastoidale width at the level of cranial base.
B2Posterior parameter of the mastoidale width at the level of cranial base.
MentonMeThe lowest point on the symphyseal shadow of the mandible seen on a lateral cephalogram.
GonionGoA point on the curvature of the angle of the mandible located by bisecting the angle formed by lines tangent to the posterior ramus and the inferior border of the mandible.
ArticulareArA point at the junction of the posterior border of the ramus and the inferior border of the posterior cranial base (occipital bone).
Anterior nasal spineANSThe anterior tip of the sharp bony process of the maxilla at the lower margin of the anterior nasal opening.


Table 2. The Cephalometric Parameters Employed in the Present Study
Linear measurements
  Ba-ANSBasion to anterior nasal spine.Depth of face.
  Ba-NBasion to nasion.Length of skull base.
  N-ANSNasion to anterior nasal spine.Height of upper face.
  ANS-MeAnterior nasal spine to Menton.Height of lower face.
  N-MeNasion to Menton.Anterior height of face.
  Id-MeInfradentale to Menton.Height of mandibular symphasis.
  Ar-GoArticular to gonion.Height of mandibular ramus.
  Me-GoMenton to gonion.Length of mandibular body.
  FSHtV1 to V2.Frontal sinus height.
  FSWdH1 to H2.Frontal sinus width.
  MHtMastoidale to B1-B2.Mastoid height.
  MWdB1 to B2.Mastoid width.
  Sg-NSupraglabellar to nasion.
  GSg-NGlabella to Sg-N (distance between glabella and the supraglabellare to nasion line).
Angular measurements
  GM-Ba-NGlabella-metopion to Basion-nasion.
  GM-SNGlabella-metopion to Sella-nasion.
  GM-FHGlabella-metopion to Frankfort plane (porion-orbitale).
  GPIGSg-N/Sg-N × 100%Glabella projection index.


Table 3. Means, Standard Deviations, Wilks’ Lambda and Univariate F Values of All Parameters, and the Classification Accuracy of Each Parameter
ParameterMale (N = 47)Female (N = 99)Tests of equality of group meansClassification accuracy (%)
MeanSDMeanSDWilks’ lambdaFSig.
*Degrees of freedom: 1 and 144. *Significance level considered: P < 0.05.
Linear measurements (mm)
Angular measurements (°)
Proportional (%)


Table 4. The Outcome of the Stepwise Discriminant Analysis Indicating the Parameters and Their Corresponding Standardized Coefficients Which Entered the Discriminant Equation


Table 5. Classification Accuracy of Discriminant Functions Applied to Parameters Measured on Lateral Cephalogram of Jordanian Young Adults
ModelClassification accuracy (%)Cross-validated (%)Classification accuracy (%)Cross-validated (%)
All parameters89.785.680.993.972.391.9
All angular parameters71.970.525.593.921.393.9
All linear parameters87.785.678.791.972.391.9
Proportional parameter69.969.927.789.927.789.9
Stepwise model87.787.074.593.972.393.9